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Homeroasters.org » THE ART OF ROASTING COFFEE » Roasting Coffee
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visual ques for 1st and 2nd crack?
Percheron
hello all,

I have been roasting and giving away a lot of coffee the last 6 months and while I have learned a lot there is still a lot to learn. Currently, I only have a nesco home roaster. It is small and it is noisy and it is slightly inconsistent.

1) Based off of what you see only while roasting is there a way to tell when first and second crack happen? My hearing is pretty bad from flying on loud military planes for the last 9 years on top of the roaster being quite loud I can not hear this cracking I read about all the time.

2) depending on the bean I am roasting sometimes it will get very dark before it starts expanding and shedding the chaff. Sometimes it expands and doesn't shed the chaff and usually when the roast is done there is still a tan(ish) little garb in the middle of the bean from the inside. How do make it so the beans roast more in a similar way?

3) The nearly doubling in size. I assume that is 1st crack. So if it is without being able to hear anything how can you know when second is starting or about to start when you have a roaster with no ability to control any feature besides the time.

Thanks in advance,
Wayne
 
renatoa
Moded a Nesco for 230V so I learnt a bit about the innards and operation.
The most important I found is to preheat for at least 3 min ! Will help a lot to have a right drying phase, and expand as expected.
I doubt the Nesco is capable of second crack... not without baking the beans for more than 0 minutes... simply not enough power in that heater. So, consider a mod to overvolt the bottom heater, ogh is the maestro here on this subject.

What I did inside mine is not useful for you, because I changed the coil at all, to be 230V capable.

On topic... if you don't hear the FC, then the next important (for me) visual clue is the color of middle slot of the bean. For my roasts FC end is associated with color turning from pale to dark, but not so dark as the bean itself.
I am a 3rd wave roaster, so never going behind this point, no SC for me :)
DIY: TurboOven with drum, Popcorn
Moded commercial: Dieckmann RoestMeister, Nesco
PID/ramp/soak controllers
Grinder: mod'ed Porlex to 47 conical burrs
 
ChicagoJohn
Good questions, Wayne. I use auditory cues and never thought a lot about how to proceed without them. In my experience (air roasters) 1C typically starts around 365F (185C). 2C in my equipment typically starts around 405-410F (~208C). Unless I'm roasting for my wife's espresso machine when I start cooling about 20 sec after 2C, I terminate my roasts at around 395 - 400F (~203C), after 1C and before onset of 2C.

These temperatures in my equipment, while not precisely repeatable, are always within a few degrees. But temperatures can vary significantly between processes, T/C placement within process, etc. So if you have a friend with good hearing, you could have them observe a few roasts and tell you onset of 1C and 2C and then you could use the temperatures they occur at as benchmarks going forward. Once established, they should be reasonably stable; at least they have been for me.

Also you could make a mental note of roast color at those points. I find I'm using color a lot more lately along with temperature.

In addition to the other changes you noted -- profuse release of chaff (which does vary significantly with origin and method of bean processing), there are changes in aroma that you might use to help confirm where you are at.

Finally, if you have a gram scale, try weighing your beans initially and then after roasting and cooling to room temperature. I typically get right around 85% yield based upon charge weight and about a 50% expansion in volume, but this will vary more by origin, I think, than will the temperature and color criteria.

I'm sure others who are more experience than I am will offer suggestions too, but I think you should be able to do well using temperature (if available on your equipment) and color.
So many beans; so little time....
x1 x2
 
oldgearhead
Install s thermostat in the Nesco and you will find that first crack occurs about 410 DF and it will not reach second crack unless modified.
I modified mine by separating the heater from the rest of the 'stuff'and controlling the heater with a 140 volt variable auto-former. After a couple of years, I built a 'real' fluid-bed roaster..
No oil on my beans...
 
renatoa
renatoa wrote:

... not without baking the beans for more than 0 minutes...


20 minutes, aged kbd... :)
DIY: TurboOven with drum, Popcorn
Moded commercial: Dieckmann RoestMeister, Nesco
PID/ramp/soak controllers
Grinder: mod'ed Porlex to 47 conical burrs
 
Percheron
oldgearhead wrote:


I modified mine by separating the heater from the rest of the 'stuff'and controlling the heater with a 140 volt variable auto-former. After a couple of years, I built a 'real' fluid-bed roaster..


Is there a resource that could describe this in detail? I am about as electrically adept as a baby horse that just discovered what an electric fence is.
 
Percheron
Thanks for that advise John. I will get a good temperature reader sent to my new house tonight. will give that a try in a few weeks when I actually get home.
 
oldgearhead
Percheron wrote:

oldgearhead wrote:


I modified mine by separating the heater from the rest of the 'stuff'and controlling the heater with a 140 volt variable auto-former. After a couple of years, I built a 'real' fluid-bed roaster..


Is there a resource that could describe this in detail? I am about as electrically adept as a baby horse that just discovered what an electric fence is.

I believe the 2011 discussions are still at Sweet Marias/Nesco Tipsheet: https://forum.swe...b43e3648a8
No oil on my beans...
 
jkoll42
It's tough to see when beans are moving around but maybe this could help

https://youtu.be/...

https://youtu.be/...
-Jon
Honey badger 1k, Bunn LPG-2E, Technivorm, Cimbali Max Hybrid, Vibiemme Double Domo V3
 
renatoa
In Nesco glass tube is not difficult at all... you look at beans as fish in aquarium
DIY: TurboOven with drum, Popcorn
Moded commercial: Dieckmann RoestMeister, Nesco
PID/ramp/soak controllers
Grinder: mod'ed Porlex to 47 conical burrs
 
oldgearhead
renatoa wrote:

In Nesco glass tube is not difficult at all... you look at beans as fish in aquarium


It is also very easy to measure bean expansion. Think of the Zach & Dani roast chamber as a nice, clear, column beaker. Good thing, because you can't hear anything..
No oil on my beans...
 
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